Ancient underground structures
To capture the water from springs held meter cameras, and shallow groundwater is captured by a horizontal water intakes, wells and wells.
Meter camera (rectangular or round in plan) arranged from durable materials (concrete, burnt brick, etc.) to improve the yield of the spring water, protection from pollution, contamination and poisoning. The water in the chamber flows through the filter in the wall or the bottom. The filter is arranged from one or more layers of sand, gravel, pebbles, grain size of each subsequent layer, starting from the aquifer, 5-8 times that of the thickness of each layer of 10-15 cm the water is taken through the outlet pipe or pump.
Horizontal water intakes are held at low levels aquifer and shallow groundwater up to a depth of 8 m. the Horizontal water intake consists of a water intake portion, discharge portion and the water collecting well. It is located perpendicular to the groundwater flow. The receiving part of the water intake can be constructed in the form of tubular drains or galleries. For tubular water intake (drainage) are applied, ceramic, asbestos cement, reinforced concrete, plastic, cast iron or steel pipe with circular or slotted holes with the sides of the top of the pipe. A water intake pipe sprinkled with gravel or coarse sand. Continue reading
The construction of engineering structures in ancient Rome.
To this period belongs the construction of several large engineering structures and among them is a large port at Ostia. At 102, to control Dacia Trajan built a great stone bridge with concrete pillars across the Danube. Built, certainly not he, and his master-builders, among which stood out from Apollodorus of Damascus. He was probably one of the most educated and talented engineers of the Roman Empire, because besides the bridge was built a number of large and complex construction structures, such as the forum of Trajan, the circus and Thermae in Rome, named after the Emperor. He is credited with the construction of one of the most beautiful and the greatest works of world architecture — the concrete of the Pantheon in Rome.
Harder is continuing the construction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 ad.). Adrian participated in the building not only as an organizer but also as an architect and civil engineer. The greater part of his life he spent in travel through the Empire. Adrian visited all Roman provinces, was a great admirer of Greek culture, admired the skill of the Egyptian artists. Continue reading