At the end of XIV – first half XV century Lithuanian churches were influenced by castle architecture and the Gothic churches of the Franciscan order and East Prussia. They are distinguished by thick walls faced with brick. Widely spaced small Windows emphasized the wide sides of the walls. These planes due to the decorative red brick, drawing the brickwork, grey seams of lime, and sometimes the ornament of black clinker. “Typical of the Gothic verticality was emphasized by buttresses, high gable roofs, dissected by shallow niches, pediments, semi-circular or Lancet Windows and doors”. (34, 195)
In the second half of XV – first half XVI century churches, respecting the old composite base, acquire new features. The walls become higher, and therefore less tangible for their heaviness. The buttresses more emphatic in drawing, not so much perform a constructive function, how much the role of a decorative element. The openings of Windows and doors increase and get a new design of shaped bricks. Cross, star or mesh arches span the interior space of the premises. (73, 95) is a Characteristic feature of Lithuanian plan of Gothic churches – a rectangular hall with a long choruses that end with a triangular apse. Continue reading
The origin of the term “Gothic”
The word comes from Italian. “unusual, barbaric, the barbarians” (the historical Goths, this style has nothing to do), and was initially used as a profanity. For the first time the notion in the modern sense used by Giorgio Vasari in order to separate the Renaissance from the middle Ages. Gothic completed the development of European medieval art, which arose on the basis of the achievements of Roman culture and the Renaissance (Renaissance) art of the middle ages was considered “barbaric”. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and Religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
Gothic in its development is divided into Early Gothic, the heyday of Late Gothic Continue reading
According to the great historian Herodotus, the Egyptian pyramids can rightly be regarded as the first wonder of the world. Herodotus in the V century studied the pyramids of Egypt, especially his attention was drawn to the pyramid of Cheops — the most conspicuous among the entire complex. It was not the treasure, was not the tombs of the pharaohs, even, there was found no symbols that indicate the purpose of this great structure. Centuries have passed, but the results are the pyramids only confirmed the words of the scientist of antiquity — the pyramids are still considered the most mysterious buildings on earth. The mystery of the pyramid complex of Giza is still not disclosed.
As you know, rule the proportions of the great pyramid correspond exactly to the Golden Section, which is the main constant in architecture, science and painting. Modern engineers are surprised that the ancient architects, without the availability of modern equipment, were able with such precision to lay the Foundation of the great pyramid, given the fact that the pyramid is built on a massive hill and not on flat ground. It follows from this that the Egyptians builders of the pyramids had a wide knowledge in the field of astronomy, and construction engineering. Continue reading