At the end of XIV – first half XV century Lithuanian churches were influenced by castle architecture and the Gothic churches of the Franciscan order and East Prussia. They are distinguished by thick walls faced with brick. Widely spaced small Windows emphasized the wide sides of the walls. These planes due to the decorative red brick, drawing the brickwork, grey seams of lime, and sometimes the ornament of black clinker. “Typical of the Gothic verticality was emphasized by buttresses, high gable roofs, dissected by shallow niches, pediments, semi-circular or Lancet Windows and doors”. (34, 195)
In the second half of XV – first half XVI century churches, respecting the old composite base, acquire new features. The walls become higher, and therefore less tangible for their heaviness. The buttresses more emphatic in drawing, not so much perform a constructive function, how much the role of a decorative element. The openings of Windows and doors increase and get a new design of shaped bricks. Cross, star or mesh arches span the interior space of the premises. (73, 95) is a Characteristic feature of Lithuanian plan of Gothic churches – a rectangular hall with a long choruses that end with a triangular apse. Continue reading
According to the great historian Herodotus, the Egyptian pyramids can rightly be regarded as the first wonder of the world. Herodotus in the V century studied the pyramids of Egypt, especially his attention was drawn to the pyramid of Cheops — the most conspicuous among the entire complex. It was not the treasure, was not the tombs of the pharaohs, even, there was found no symbols that indicate the purpose of this great structure. Centuries have passed, but the results are the pyramids only confirmed the words of the scientist of antiquity — the pyramids are still considered the most mysterious buildings on earth. The mystery of the pyramid complex of Giza is still not disclosed.
As you know, rule the proportions of the great pyramid correspond exactly to the Golden Section, which is the main constant in architecture, science and painting. Modern engineers are surprised that the ancient architects, without the availability of modern equipment, were able with such precision to lay the Foundation of the great pyramid, given the fact that the pyramid is built on a massive hill and not on flat ground. It follows from this that the Egyptians builders of the pyramids had a wide knowledge in the field of astronomy, and construction engineering. Continue reading
Area with a landscape similar to the moon, where is found the largest underground city in Turkey is located in the valley of Goreme in Cappadocia. Cappadocia is known for the presence of the underground cities of Derinkuyu is the largest of its kind. The age of this underground structure is compared with the age of the Egyptian pyramids. The Derinkuyu means “deep wells”, the name of the underground city has received from the small town, which is located above it.
Why are those strange wells, for a long time nobody was interested, until one of the locals in 1963 did not show a curiosity about the strange cracks in the basement, where there was fresh air. Thus was discovered an entire underground city, carved into the rock, consisting of twenty layers, the many rooms and galleries connected by passages that have a length in tens of kilometers. To date, archaeologists have been able to go into Derinkuyu is 85 meters and explore the first eight tiers. Continue reading