At the end of XIV – first half XV century Lithuanian churches were influenced by castle architecture and the Gothic churches of the Franciscan order and East Prussia. They are distinguished by thick walls faced with brick. Widely spaced small Windows emphasized the wide sides of the walls. These planes due to the decorative red brick, drawing the brickwork, grey seams of lime, and sometimes the ornament of black clinker. “Typical of the Gothic verticality was emphasized by buttresses, high gable roofs, dissected by shallow niches, pediments, semi-circular or Lancet Windows and doors”. (34, 195)
In the second half of XV – first half XVI century churches, respecting the old composite base, acquire new features. The walls become higher, and therefore less tangible for their heaviness. The buttresses more emphatic in drawing, not so much perform a constructive function, how much the role of a decorative element. The openings of Windows and doors increase and get a new design of shaped bricks. Cross, star or mesh arches span the interior space of the premises. (73, 95) is a Characteristic feature of Lithuanian plan of Gothic churches – a rectangular hall with a long choruses that end with a triangular apse. Continue reading
Megaliths in Greek language means “big stone” and are stone structures relating to the prehistoric period.
These structures were erected without any connecting mortar (cement or lime), and just evolved. A new name – “megaliths” – was first performed in 1849 in his book “Cyclops Christianus,” written by English researcher A. H., and in 1867, the term was adopted at the Paris Congress. Megalithic structures are large blocks of hewn stones, which can consist of one large stone or group of stones.
The buildings of megaliths have received different names and were categorized into types:
• The menhir became known as one large stone, standing in a vertical position.
• The cromlech is a group of vertically standing stones (menhirs) until the circle or semi-circle. Continue reading
Dolmens in the North Caucasus there are about 3000 pieces. The dolmens to meet both single people and entire groups. In the vicinity of Gelendzhik dolmens meet almost everywhere. Excursions to the dolmens that are organized in different places: on Jean, Pedo in Arkhipo-Osipovka, mount Neksis.
Dolmens – structures made of stone slabs 5 with a round hole in the front plate, like a birdhouse, but set on earth. The hole was closed with a carefully fitted stone cork sleeve. This type of dolmen is typical for the Western Caucasus. Much less often here there are dolmens compound where one or more plates composed of smaller blocks. In the Caucasus dolmens are found is polymodality made from huge stone and covered with a slab roof. Usually, by processing the surface around the hole, was attached to them the similarities with the front facade of the tile of the dolmen. We have also built the dolmens monoliths in very limited quantities – carved entirely from a single stone. Currently only one dolmen in the Sochi area. Continue reading