The first lighthouses were built in the days when humanity was just beginning to make tentative steps towards the development of their native planet. For the convenience of navigators along the coasts navigation built high towers, on the tops of which are all-weather, day and night burning a fire alarm. According to it, the captains of the ships were able to understand how far away the shore, and thus save their ships from sinking on coastal rocks in conditions of inclement weather and sea storms.
One of the oldest and most famous lighthouses of Alexandria – awarded the title of “wonder of the world”. Erected in III century BC, it served as a guiding star Maritime ships, lighting up the night with bright flames, and the day – dense column of smoke. The technology of the first lighthouses was based on the use of various fuels – coal, rapeseed oil, kerosene. Subsequently flammable liquids were driven optical elements, the beacons were installed not only on land but also in water – the so-called sea or floating beacons. Continue reading
Medieval architecture in its development passed through two successive stages: an early period of the Romanesque style (XI-XII centuries) and late – Gothic period (XII-XV centuries).
The early period of feudalism is characterized by land fragmentation and internecine wars between feudal lords. These conditions are reflected in the architecture. For building choose in a strategic manner. Building otvechala of defence; the walls and arches make a massive, luminous apertures resemble loopholes of the building topped with watch towers. These characteristics of the Romanesque style found in the buildings of the period of early feudalism in all the countries of Europe.
The Romanesque style was based on the experience and elements of Roman stone architecture, hence its name appeared in the NINETEENTH century.
The characteristic features of Romanesque architecture except the thick walls, which was semicircular arches and barrel or cross vaults. To support the weight of the stone needed a very thick column, which was sometimes replaced with powerful cross or octagonal poles – pillars. The Romanesque capitals had simple geometric shapes, often adorned, in spite of constructive logic, the carved relief images. Continue reading
Advanced drainage systems for waterproofing of buildings and structures
Drainage systems are an essential part of any waterproofing, it solves the problem of relieving hydrostatic pressure from the waterproofing of building envelopes and particularly critical components. Selection of quality drainage extends the life of waterproofing material. The article considers the main types of drainage systems, their features and specifications.
Drainage and waterproofing various structural parts are the most relevant in construction practice. In the system of hydronamic need structures of various types: underground (tunnels, foundations, multi-level underground car Park), embedded (objects, warehouses, reservoirs and containers of various purpose, etc.) and accessible roof. Also it can be industrial buildings, civil engineering projects, hydraulic structures and ordinary cottages.
Excessive moisture and direct contact of the structures with moisture leads to the destruction and corrosion, which ultimately could lead to the destruction of the whole structure. Continue reading
The Brooklyn bridge is one of the most famous bridges of America, whose length is almost two kilometers long while the bridge is hanging. Is a bridge across the Strait called the East river and connects Manhattan with Brooklyn in new York. This is the first bridge in the world, in construction of which were used steel rods, as well as at the time of its completion it was the longest bridge in the world. The bridge is of granite, cement and limestone. Initially, Brooklyn bridge was called the Bridge of Brooklyn and new York, and only in 1915 he received the title, which is to this day.
The bridge is divided into three parts along, it can pedestrians walk and drive cars. Cars go by two side bands, while the pedestrian lane is in the middle and strongly raised above the surface of the bridge. Also on the middle part of the bridge can ride bikes.
The bridge is located in the National Historic landmark of the USA since 1965. Not so long ago – in 2008 – the bridge celebrated its 125th anniversary. This is one of the most popular places for ordinary and Cycling all residents of the city of new York. A lot of attention to the bridge pay Hollywood films, through which he is considered one of the unofficial symbols of the city. Continue reading
Lithuania will give You a great experience preserved medieval buildings and architectural ensembles.
In Vilnius be sure to visit the famous Gediminas Castle, the Upper castle is the heart of the town, one of the first Gothic buildings Dating from the 13th century. Also of interest are the city wall with the gates of dawn, St Michael’s Church, some University house, a former elluminate and several houses. The churches of St. Casimir, Dominicans, Trinitarians, building quite massive domes designed in the Baroque style. A masterpiece of Vilnius Baroque should be considered built in the second half of the 18th century Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. The pinnacle of classicism should be the building of Vilnius Cathedral. In addition, the list of creations of classicism include the original building of the city hall, the former Governor’s Palace, hall of columns of the University, houses Oginski, Tyshkevicha, Chodkeviciai.
In Vilnius great number of museums, exhibition halls, Artillery Bastion (exposition of ancient weapons), Center for contemporary art, the national Museum, the national gallery, the Radziwill Palace, the amber Museum, and others. Continue reading