The construction of engineering structures in ancient Rome.
To this period belongs the construction of several large engineering structures and among them is a large port at Ostia. At 102, to control Dacia Trajan built a great stone bridge with concrete pillars across the Danube. Built, certainly not he, and his master-builders, among which stood out from Apollodorus of Damascus. He was probably one of the most educated and talented engineers of the Roman Empire, because besides the bridge was built a number of large and complex construction structures, such as the forum of Trajan, the circus and Thermae in Rome, named after the Emperor. He is credited with the construction of one of the most beautiful and the greatest works of world architecture — the concrete of the Pantheon in Rome.
Harder is continuing the construction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 ad.). Adrian participated in the building not only as an organizer but also as an architect and civil engineer. The greater part of his life he spent in travel through the Empire. Adrian visited all Roman provinces, was a great admirer of Greek culture, admired the skill of the Egyptian artists.
In his later years he ordered to build in the city Ciboure near Rome country Villa with concrete walls and play there in miniature all the things that so struck him during his travels. In 132, Hadrian began corugated himself a grandiose mausoleum and the bridge to him, thrown across the Tiber. The construction of these facilities was completed in 139 g Construction activities immediate successors of Hadrian were not so lively. The most important constructions can be called a temple in honor of the wife of the Emperor Antoninus Pius and the column bearing the name of Marcus Aurelius.
During the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211.) there is some revival of building activity. According to his contemporary Lapidaria “. The buildings the former rulers, he restored and built many himself, including the baths their name. Held and the water that is called Alexandrova.
He first introduced the Alexander method of finishing two kinds of marble. The forum of Trajan, he put statues of the great crowded, moving them from everywhere. The bridges built by Trajan, he restored in almost all areas, and some newly built. “G. in 203 to commemorate the victories over the Parthians and Arabs in Rome is constructed on a strong concrete Foundation the arch of Septimius Severus height 23 and width 25 m. the Architecture of this period is richly decorated, giving the buildings the front face.
When the Emperor Caracalla (211-217.) in Rome constructed the most grandiose and beautiful for all history of existence of Therma, where as the main building material used was concrete. The whole complex of buildings occupied 16 hectares and was completed in a little over four years.
If earlier large cash expenditure caused by the war, construction of roads, public works, famine and epidemics of plague have been covered by the spoils of war, tribute from conquered peoples or the money from the sale of captured and confiscated lands, now, at the beginning of the third century such opportunities are drastically reduced.
Rome at that time, like many cities of its provinces, still retained their gloss, but the decline, rooted in the very structure of the Roman Empire, was already well noticeable. Maritime trade began to threaten the pirates, and the roads have become unsafe due to the frequent cases of robbery. There came a time when the collapse of the economy; the deserted town, empty fields, because not enough manpower, there was a deepening of the typical forms of subsistence agriculture.
In the second half of the III century after increased pressure from barbarians on the Roman border, began intensive construction of fortresses and walls all over the vast Empire. So, Aurelian from the first days of his reign was to strengthen the strong walls of Rome, construction of which was completed in 282,
Activities and numerous decrees of Diocletian, and later Constantine aimed at normalizing economic life of the country, were unsuccessful. External threat to Roman state was temporarily resolved, the order stabilized, and peace is assured. One of the main methods of state policy was the “militarization” of the entire state, including the civilian part of the population. Taking the example of a great Oriental monarchy, the emperors created a socio-economic system in which every citizen was considered only in the service of the state. No one had the right to withdraw from the social category or craft organization, in which he was. No one could shy away from the activities to which he was dedicated from the day of his birth. Previously free Board, uniting people by profession, is now a compulsory Corporation. The majority of artisans from the state money, and most natural benefits, but it had to come to terms with the fact that their freedom was now severely restricted.
In this environment, growing and expanding capital construction. The time of the reign of Diocletian is built in 290 g. the Verona arena — a building reminiscent of the type and size of the Colosseum in Rome. In 305 g. built a huge concrete baths of Diocletian. They could accommodate 3,200 people and was the largest building of this type, in the entire history of Roman construction.
Under Constantine, in which public administration has continued the tradition of Diocletian, on 11 may 330, there was a solemn consecration of the new capital of the Roman Empire, which was called Constantinople. It quickly became built up, adorned with magnificent buildings and works of art, both brought from Rome and Greece.
By the fourth century the Roman Empire is entering the last and concluding stage of its development. Gradually formed a system of so-called natural fortress of closed relations. In the country reduced trade, naturalists almost all types of government payments. Changed the appearance of cities. They now take the form of fortresses, bounded by strong walls and towers. The estate became an independent political and economic units and their owners in the Emperor, with an army of slaves and colons. Rome’s Empire was falling apart in my eyes. At the end of IV century, a new socio-political crisis. Parallel to the increasing pressure of the barbarians on the borders of the state. The huge masses of Huns, Alans and Goths moved from the Caspian steppes on the West. On 24 August 410, the eternal city fell.
Thus, as a result of aggressive policy of Ancient Rome, enriching it at the expense of the wars develops the construction of major engineering structures, luxury mansions, palaces, temples, residential and public buildings. In turn, this required a new, strong, durable and relatively cheap material, and what was the concrete. However osushestvleniya for large construction projects, concrete one gold and slaves was not enough. Required a well-established organization of labour, engineering expertise and construction equipment.