Gothic style architecture and the Dzayn
The Gothic style . how the term came about after the Gothic as a style in architecture, has lost its dominant importance. He was the first to introduce Italian sculptor, painter, and probably the first scientist – art historian Giorgio Vasari in the mid 16th century. He introduced this term to identify a new direction in the architecture and painting of the Renaissance or Objection. In his “Biographies of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects,” he introduces the notion of Gothic art, which is forever stuck for the whole era.
The word Gothic comes to us from the Italian language, and even from still earlier era of the late Roman Empire. Initially, the Goths called barbarian tribes which eventually put an end to the Roman domination. So Gothic was for the Romans the definition of barbarism, and it was a dirty word. Gothic does not have any relationship to the Goths, and this term appeared after the Goths had disappeared from the stage of history, but the term caught on and, unlike many of the names of artistic styles, the Gothic style has a clear expression in form and in content. Why Gothic is contrasted with the Renaissance? It’s very simple – the Gothic style – a style of majestic cathedrals and buildings that suppress the personality. All thoughts of a person caught under the influence of Gothic paintings, or architecturally to be directed to God and to suppress unwanted beginning. That is why the Gothic cathedrals are striving upward to the sky, as if renouncing all earthly things.
The Renaissance brings out the personality, with its weaknesses, even sins, and at the same time with the beauty that the authors of the Renaissance is found in ordinary things and ordinary persons. If we try to recall the works that relate to Gothic art, then the memory comes almost not a single picture of domestic content. It or frescoes, or paintings, or icons with biblical scenes. But at the same time it should be noted that the Gothic, which came to change the Romanesque style, became the heyday of technologies and skills and the architects, painters, and sculptors. Appear in droves buildings, the construction of which required new knowledge. The construction of the magnificent buildings gave a powerful impetus to the popularization of the exact Sciences. The massive construction in Europe has resulted in the emergence of such class as professional builders — bricklayers. Because the construction of cathedrals sometimes lasted for decades, or even centuries. It required professional workers, architects, contractors, craftsmen and foremen, who quickly formed the principle of operation of the whole industry with its structure, which has remained unchanged for hundreds of years: architect – foreman – skilled workers – unskilled workers. Thanks to the Gothic epoch, we have received and the phenomenon of Freemasonry. Although Masonic lodges appeared in the 17th or 18th century, they were the prototype of the first building of the “brigade” or workshop of masons, with their structure, symbolism and to some extent ideology. And it was this caste of builders became the prototype of technocrats for whom the world has a mathematical logic.
The elements that define the Gothic style
Gothic style has pretty clear elements that define it. Gothic style is easily recognizable by certain techniques, which then were used. To put it in one sentence, then you can use the following the upward aspiration in the spiritual world, his religious sense. Its expression is:
Gothic architecture features the pointed form, with carved facades and tall narrow columns;
Of particular interest are the Windows are narrow and pointed at the top;
The frame structure of buildings and Windows;
Stained glass – using stained glass decorating Windows;
Not bearing walls and columns and the modified structure of the arches, which has made it easier to design and build very high buildings.
In sculpture, also manifested the basic idea is the upward aspiration – the bodies of the saints on the walls of cathedrals extended. But it is yet another objective is visual effect. More elongated body look natural, if you look at them from below.
In painting, the Gothic style is expressed not only in murals but also genre portrait. Of particular importance is the color. Late Gothic style characterized by bright colors and paints that are opposed to Church canons. Developing painting technique. Appear innovators such as Giotto. In his works there are images of people from behind and in profile. Paint paintings and techniques of some of the pieces are reminiscent of modern art – almost poster. This is clearly seen in the works of such masters as Giotto, Andrea da Firenze, Taddeo di Bartolo, and others. One of the phenomena that characterize Gothic painting is grotesque. The most famous artist working in this manner is Bosch, but it is Gothic painters have developed this style.
So that gave us the era of Gothic art:
The main monuments of Gothic architecture are cathedrals that can be seen in almost all countries of Europe.