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Ancient underground structures

To capture the water from springs held meter cameras, and shallow groundwater is captured by a horizontal water intakes, wells and wells.

Meter camera (rectangular or round in plan) arranged from durable materials (concrete, burnt brick, etc.) to improve the yield of the spring water, protection from pollution, contamination and poisoning. The water in the chamber flows through the filter in the wall or the bottom. The filter is arranged from one or more layers of sand, gravel, pebbles, grain size of each subsequent layer, starting from the aquifer, 5-8 times that of the thickness of each layer of 10-15 cm the water is taken through the outlet pipe or pump.

Horizontal water intakes are held at low levels aquifer and shallow groundwater up to a depth of 8 m. the Horizontal water intake consists of a water intake portion, discharge portion and the water collecting well. It is located perpendicular to the groundwater flow. The receiving part of the water intake can be constructed in the form of tubular drains or galleries. For tubular water intake (drainage) are applied, ceramic, asbestos cement, reinforced concrete, plastic, cast iron or steel pipe with circular or slotted holes with the sides of the top of the pipe. A water intake pipe sprinkled with gravel or coarse sand.

Dug wells (Fig.8.1) are applied, usually to capture water from the aquifer with a small capacity. The well is a vertical water intake (mine) with a diameter of 1-1,5 m. For the convenience of the well above the surface of the earth is arranged a cap with a lid; can be installed on the lifting tool. To protect against seepage along the walls of contaminated water from the ground around the headwall gets a clay castle. The sides of the well are fixed from the collapse of a reinforced concrete rings, rings or pipes made of asbestos cement, stone or a wooden log house. The fastening of the walls of the wells is carried out the drain. In this case, the fastening elements are lowered under their own weight as the depth of the well, and the top part is enhanced with new elements.

The wells are arranged manually or through Kolesnyk machines and equipment of mobile drilling rigs PBU-50 (AR-50 m).

Fig. 8.1. Mineshaft:

1 – pump; 2 – cap; 3 – cap; 4 – clay lock; 5 – fastening of the walls;

6 – return filter

The well is a vertical, circular in plan, revealing the aquifer mine, the diameter of which reaches up to 300 mm, which is much less (100-500 or more times) its depth. Depth of well depends on the hydrogeological conditions and opportunities for drilling rigs. Depending on the estimated time of operation arranged permanent or temporary wells.

Permanent wells are designed for continuous operation and are built by specialized drilling organizations, and in some cases the units field water supply with the use of mobile drilling rigs PBU-50 the PBU-200.

Temporary wells are constructed military rigs and operated for a limited time (for a period not exceeding 10 days). Drilling and auxiliary equipment used for their construction, used repeatedly.

For temporary construction of wells are used: a shallow tube well MTK-2M, the installation for the extraction of groundwater dual-25 (dual-15), mobile drilling rigs PBU-50M (PBU-50) and the MDR-200.

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