Gothic – historic artistic style that dominated Western European art in the XIII-XV centuries by the Goths the Romans called barbarian tribes invaded from the North in the Empire in the III-V centuries the Term originated in the Italian Renaissance as a derisive nickname for the “barbaric” and primitive, Dating back to the past of medieval culture. Initially it was used for literature – to indicate a wrong, distorted Latin. Medieval architecture was then called the common word “tedesca” (Italian: “German”). There is an assumption that the word “Gothic” was first used by Raphael, the famous painter of the Renaissance.
Gothic – the crown of the middle ages, it is bright colors, gilding, stained glass lights, expression, soaring into the sky with a barbed needle spires, Symphony of light, stone and glass… Gothic style characterizes the final stage of medieval art in Western Europe. The birth of Gothic style can be considered the culmination of the Romanesque and its overcoming. For a long time, elements of both styles co-existed, and the transition time of the XII century. was” the Renaissance character.”
The main incentive for the formation of Gothic art was a unique combination of the Christian worldview, traditions of ancient culture, especially architecture of Rome, Latin literature, manuscript illumination,accent-Galytska of arts and crafts. The birth of Gothic style can be considered the culmination of the Romanesque and its overcoming. For a long time, elements of both styles co-existed, and the transition time of the XII century. was “the Renaissance character.” A paradoxical feature of the Gothic style, the perfect forms which demonstrate the irrationalism, dematerialization and higher, a mystic expression, is that the reason (but not reason) its occurrence as a technical achievement – a rational improvement of the building structure. The history of Gothic architecture is the history and the ribs were added. The release of the walls of the load allowed to cut their huge Windows, this has stimulated the art of stained glass. The interior of the Church was high and bright.
The birth of the Gothic style – an example of artistic Transfiguration of utilitarianism, the design of the composition. It illustrates the primary pattern formation process in the art. Forms of architecture were not to Express strength and stability, and the Christian idea of striving upward to the sky – the content, the opposite of the functional meaning of the building structure. This mysterious metamorphosis can be felt when entering the temple. We’ll see the ranks thin columns beams, the tops of which are lost in the haze hovering over the head, or should I say, under heaven, the arches, their thin ribs diverge like mysterious flowers. The architecture of a Gothic Cathedral – the symbol of infinity. The secret art of Gothic architecture is that its architectonics (“visual design”) is not the real.
Gothic style in interior design
Gothic style, gradually losing a pronounced national (French, German, English) and specificity of acquiring common stylistic features. The main features of interior design in the Gothic style can be called up desire, sharpness, lightness, expressiveness.
Historical interiors of Gothic
Interiors designed in the Gothic style, characterized by Majesty and grace. Walls cease to be a constructive element, becoming lighter, faced with wood or decorated with murals of bright colors, wall hangings. Wooden and stone floors early Gothic interior later was also covered with carpets. Its characteristic features are delicate ornaments, stone carving lace, arched vaults. Above the entrance is usually adorned with a huge stained-glass window, a rose. Window glass framed in lead, of a convex glass, but no curtains. The ceilings are wooden beamed construction, or decorated with open rafters; decorative painting on the ceiling.
Furniture in the Gothic interior
Typical furniture products, Gothic style interior design: high double cabinets with four, six or nine panels, as well as buffets on high legs, high back chairs and beds that mimic the architectural details of castles and fortified churches. Later this influence affected the ornamentation: carpentry skill was imposed on the exact geometric ornamentation, contrary to the very texture of wood. The main type of furniture, as in the castles of the knights, and ordinary citizens was a chest, from which eventually formed a chest-bench. The chests were tables, benches and beds. Often the trunks placed one upon another, while decorating the entire structure with Lancet arches – both turned out the cupboard. The table in the Gothic interior has a deep drawer and countertop are very prominent, the base of which there were two mechanical support. Under the hinged tops were a variety of offices and small boxes. The bed, if it has not been built into the wall, had a canopy or large, like a closet, a wooden frame, and in the southern countries of Europe are with wooden structure with the architectural structure, carvings and colored decoration. The main materials in the interior design of Gothic style. In the construction and decoration of Gothic buildings used primarily stone, marble, wood (oak, walnut, spruce, pine, larch and stone pine, juniper). In the decoration of tiled mosaic, majolica; the chests covered with leather, used rich metal (iron and bronze) fittings, the motives of stalactites, carved stones. Figure stucco and sometimes painted and covered with gold leaf.
Stained glass in the form of Lancet arches – one of the most recognizable features of the Gothic style. Huge Windows, for which the walls are only a slight frame, multi-colour stained-glass Windows, lighting effects, finally, a beautiful window, a rose – all this creates a unique “person” of the Gothic style.
Theologians attributed the ability of stained glass to enlighten man’s soul and keep him from evil. The origins of this art form dates back to late antiquity. Unique stained glass effects due to the transparency of its Foundation – stained glass, use the same for drawing the contours of the black paint was opaque. In areas of ornamental stained glass is dominated by red and blue tones in the scene – white, various shades of purple, yellow and green.
“Gothic rose”, a colorful stained-glass Windows, painted sculpture – all this speaks of the special role of color in the middle ages. In interior design the Gothic style used vivid red, blue, yellow, brown, and gold and silver thread. For contrast detail used purple, ruby, blue-black, clove pink, green.
The elements of the Gothic style interior
Paintings for room decoration in the Gothic style are rare. At the same time, the era of Gothic architecture – this is the heyday of portrait miniatures, and the emergence of easel painting, while high-rise decorative arts. In the Gothic style there is the flourishing craft crafts: carving stone and wood, small sculpture in ivory, ceramics and glassmaking, in various metal parts, decorated with stones and enamel, fabrics and tapestries – everywhere sophistication of imagination and a generous richness of decoration combined with brilliant skill and thoroughness of decoration.
Gothic in design of modern interiors
Play pure Gothic style in a modern hospital is difficult, but elements of this style is widely used in interior design country homes and interior design of apartments. Arched stained-glass Windows, wrought iron spiral staircases – all this is perfectly in harmony with the decoration of artificial stone. For the decoration of the walls and basement fireplace area using samples that mimic the smooth rock, expressive, wild stone, rough limestone. The necessary “locking” effect also create artificial stone framed door portals and window openings. An interesting impression arises from the use of contrasting colors and textures. Distributed by the reception blende, when part of the wall with the “loss” of exposing “ancient” masonry. Special stylistic predetermination the interior makes use of stained glass in the traditional Gothic colours, stained glass can be used in both Windows and blank walls of the with internal lighting. In the center of the interior in accordance with the design of a Gothic interior is well positioned richly decorated fireplace or tiled stove gazing up architectural details.