The megalithic temples of Malta
Mysterious megalithic temples of Malta are on the list of world cultural heritage sites of UNESCO, as a single group. These wonderful sanctuaries are more than 5 thousand years. Every megalithic temple complex developed independently, some were built even before the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, others in the bronze age. Scientists are still trying to find the answer to their appearance
On the island of Gozo is a complex of two temples of Ggantija, it is the oldest free-standing monuments and the most ancient structures of the bronze age, preserved in the world. They confirm that the island was inhabited even a thousand years before the construction of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza. Earlier, local residents thought that these megaliths were built by giants-the giants as they struck his scales. In the Maltese language “Ggantija” means “giant”.
Both temples have five apses connected by a Central corridor leading to Tripoli. They are built using the header and stretcher techniques of masonry, with blocks of coral limestone, some of which have more than five meters in length and weigh about 50 tons.
The temple of Hagar Qim is located on the island of Malta, on top of a hill. It is a single structure temple, decorated with animals and deities carved from flint and obsidian. His facade external courtyard is typical of all such structures on the Islands. From the land around the complex was extracted many valuable discoveries, for example, altar, altar, the pillars, the various statues. These findings currently can be seen in the National archaeological Museum.
Mnajdra was built – is a complex of three temples located between the cliffs of the southern coast of the island of Malta. In its layout it resembles a clover leaf. The upper temple belonging to 3600-3200 BC is the most ancient, it is a triapsidal building made of coral limestone. Lower, the most well-preserved temple was designed and built according to astronomical laws, so on March 20 and September 22 the sun’s rays pass exactly through the special places of the temple in accordance with the plans of the architects. The middle temple was built in the late Marsianski period and is located between the other two.
The sorrow of the churches were opened relatively recently – only in the 1960-ies. The churches have been preserved pretty bad, but their territory have been made very important discoveries related to the early Neolithic period.
Temples TA’ Hagrat perfectly preserved, though, and were among the earliest megaliths on the island. It is assumed that temples were built on the former site of the village, because the archaeologists during excavations found a large quantity of ceramics. The complex has a unique layout compared to other similar buildings on the island. The facade of the great temple was renovated in 1937.
The temple building complex, which includes four megalithic structures, Tarxien is attributable to 3600-2500 BCE