Gothic churches
In the Middle ages was in Europe the city without a Catholic Cathedral. The Latin term civitas, which means city, settlement, in those days, meant the seat of the Bishop.…

Continue reading →

Dolmens of the Caucasus
Megaliths (from the Greek. — large, Ai0og — rock) — prehistoric structures of large stone blocks, joined without cement or mortar. In the limiting case that one module (the menhir).…

Continue reading →

<a href="" title="Easy Random Posts">Easy Random Posts</a>

House looked up from the roots: How to tolerate the building

Just three years ago a curious thing happened in Germany. It turned out that the stone Church of the XIV century interferes to develop the coal below it in the bowels. The temple was set on a wheeled wooden platform and percetile 12 km, to the neighboring village. The whole project cost €3 million

We, the Russians, and especially Muscovites, the subject of the transfer of the buildings are very close, for they were in our recent history, the time when the center of the capital of Russia with its “old-style” buildings actively adjusted to a bright Communist future. Then, in the 1930s, according to the General plan of reconstruction of Moscow through the centre, it was decided to pave several streets wide. Where new avenues were crowded, was turned into rubble, entire blocks. But still some houses deserve a special fate, which had not been demolished. They simply moved. The most famous building, moved to a new address, then the city Council building (originally the house of the Governor-General the construction of M. F. Kazakov), Savvinskoe Podvorie monastery, the building of the Eye hospital — all on Tverskaya street. About the history of Moscow “permutations”, of the outstanding engineer Emmanuil Handel, who led the movement, has been written a lot. However, it is interesting to have a look at the technology of the transfer of the building from place to place. Even to the uninitiated it is clear that the main problems to be resolved by engineers, is the huge weight of the moving object and its fragility. The house must be very gently to detach from the Foundation to lift, move and manage thus not to destroy it.

Iron in the ground

The first thing you need somehow to separate the house from the Foundation. To do this, tear off around the building a trench and then cut him off from his Foundation. In the practice of the Moscow movement of the cutting tool used metal cables. Of course, at this point, the building’s not going anywhere: quite a bit to budge — and it will collapse. Before the journey begins, brick, stone or wood will have to seal.

The first step is to strengthen the building of the so-called belt beams. Another option is girdling of the house with a concrete monolith. The next step is the construction of a powerful metal frame on which the building and hit the road. Read more

Exterior and interior walls that will be perpendicular to the direction of movement, the most vulnerable, and must be strengthened particularly. Within the walls of the bore longitudinal grooves (toothing), which vmurovyvayut powerful iron bars in the form of an I-beam. These reinforcing structures are called beams. Below beams in walls punch the openings for railway tracks (they will go perpendicular to the beams). On padded rails install rinks, and on them — the so-called chassis beams. Running over beams placed transverse beams, which are rigidly held together with the beams, but running is not yet affected. So the reference frame acquires its final form. Finally, in the remaining space between the chassis and cross beams to drive metal wedges. At this point the weight of the building is transferred from the rollers on Foundation, put on rails. Left to disassemble the parts of the masonry between the openings for railway tracks, and the house to roll. Actually, the described technology is only one of the options. In different cases, depending on the weight of the house and other conditions, design a basic frame and methods of registration rollers could be different. But the General principle remained unchanged. When moving the building normally used by the pushing jacks and winches to tow the building ahead.

What about us?

Amazing and sad that the Soviet feats in the field of movement of buildings is virtually unknown abroad. One of the well visited American popular science websites in the five heaviest buildings ever moved, no one in Moscow, but there are four American, although the record recognized as a Chinese house. 13 he weighed 500 tons and was moved on 36 m, which hit the Guinness Book of records. One only has to recall that Handel transferred the Savvinskaya farmstead weighs 23 000 t.

It seems unfair, but the grain of truth is there. Our epic urban permutations remained in the distant past, when the USSR merasa achievements with US. America was branded as the hotbed of bourgeois manners, but secretly envied its technological power. And it is in the U.S. the movement of buildings was for the first time in history placed on a commercial and industrial basis. There is continued to move the house today.

Jacks and wheels

For example, in 2001 moved the old terminal building Newark airport in new Jersey. His weight, among other things, about 7000 T. However, technologies currently used to move such large cargoes, differ somewhat from that described above. Now, instead of rollers are used almost everywhere wheels.

It begins as a standard. The house dig a trench to expose the Foundation, is separated from it and through a basement in a building having a powerful I-beams (like the beams). They become robust frame. Next comes the most critical part of the whole event — the building must be raised to lead from a wheeled cart. This is done by means of hydraulic jacks. The jacks are arranged on supports of wooden bars. The upgrade process requires meticulous accuracy. The force should be distributed evenly, and the building must not tip. During the work, while some jacks to hold the building, under other enclose additional bars. Then these jacks are actuated. Modern equipment allows you to control all the jacks simultaneously working to ensure that raised the building was occupied by a perfectly horizontal position. Upon reaching the desired height under the metal beams of the frame down wheeled truck. Using rack-jacking the truck hit the iron beam, taking the weight of the building itself. Then begins transportation in tow. Sometimes, if the building is not very big, instead of bogies for his down special truck with a huge platform on which to transport.

Types of megalithic structures
Megaliths in Greek language means "big stone" and are stone structures relating to the prehistoric period. These structures were erected without any connecting mortar (cement or lime), and just evolved.…

Continue reading →

The stone architecture of Lithuania of XIII – XVIII centuries
At the end of XIV - first half XV century Lithuanian churches were influenced by castle architecture and the Gothic churches of the Franciscan order and East Prussia. They are…