In the XII century in France has arisen a new style of art. In France in the XIII century it reached maturity and then spread throughout most of Europe and dominated until the end of the middle Ages. Contemporaries referred to him as “the French style”, and the descendants became known as the Gothic (from the name of grunneger-Mansky tribe is ready).
The last judgment. The relief gate of the Church in Conques. XII in
Monster. A capital of the Cathedral in Canterbury. England
Margrave Ekkehard and his wife Uta. The Cathedral in Naumburg. The XIII century.
Largely Gothic Cathedral was similar to the Romanesque towers on the Western facade; portals, richly decorated with sculpture; the nave leading to the altar; the cross of the transept. It is natural: the Gothic style had not changed the destination of the Cathedral, which remains a place of prayer and worship. Almost all the elements of Romanesque art survived, but changed. Instead of the powerful pillars — beams of thin elegant columns. Their line, continuing on the vault, intricately intertwined and made of heavy stone arch seemed to get lost in the sky. Numerous arches above semicircular, stretched up and in its highest point like broke — those arches are called Lancet. Instead of the small Windows pierced in the thick walls, there was a huge window. The Cathedral’s interior was filled with light.In this temple the people felt otherwise. Although he seemed small next to the huge Cathedral, or within it, but the temple did not overwhelm the believer. On the contrary, arches, towers with pointed spires, hundreds of statues on the facades and inside buildings, they attracted the eye and thoughts of man up to God.
Madonna with the child. The stained-glass window. Chartres XII century.
The Cathedral Of Notre Dame. XII—XIV centuries. View from the South-East
These changes were made possible as a result of advances in technology construction. The architects learned how to distribute the weight of the arches, transferring it from the walls on the supporting pillars. In addition, the severity of the arch using a special polaron — flying buttresses — partially passed on powerful pillars, buttresses, rendered from the interior spaces to the outside. Because of this it was possible to raise the arches of a great height. If the highest Romanesque Cathedral — the Church of the Abbey, the Key-not the height of the arches was just over 30 meters, in the Gothic cathedrals she reached 40 and more meters.
The transfer of all loads on the supporting pillars and buttresses made it possible to abandon the thick walls. Instead they got large Windows. In the window frame inserted image of colored pieces of glass bonded together with lead rims. They were called stained glass (from the Latin word “Vitrum” — glass). The huge glowing stained glass Windows, replaced the frescoes of the Romanesque cathedrals, depicted Christ and the virgin, the saints, biblical scenes. Through the stained glass Windows in the Church was infiltrated a lot of light, in Sunny weather it’s played on the columns and on the floor a colorful flare, it seemed that even the air in the temple was glowing.
Scheme of a Gothic Cathedral in the context of
The Western facade of the Cathedral in Reims. France. The XIII century.
The Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (XIII century) the Kingdom of authentic stained glass. What inventions made it possible to build such tall churches?
The Gothic Cathedral was a real miracle of medieval art, which harmoniously combine architecture, painting, sculpture and decorative arts, fine clothes the priests and the solemn sound of the organ. This ethereal beauty was created long work of genius craftsmen — architects, stone carvers, stained-glass craftsmen. Their farm passed from city to city, carrying out orders. The construction cost a lot of money and was so time consuming that at best lasted for a couple of decades, and sometimes lasted for several centuries.
Berier of Clairvaux on the sculptural decoration of the Romanesque monastery Church
Why in the cloisters, before the eyes of the brothers reading this ridiculous discovernet, these strange, ugly images? To what here a dirty monkey? What wild lions? What monstrous centaurs? What could? What the spotted tigers? What warriors, in a duel smashing? What hunters trumpeting? Here, under one head you can see a lot of bodies, there, on the contrary, on one body many heads. Here, you’ll see, the four-legged tail of a serpent, there a fish — head four-legged.
So great, in the end, so amazing everywhere the diversity of the different ways that people prefer to read on the marble and not on the book, and the whole day to look at them, amazed, and not to think about the law of God, UCAS.
Is there a connection between what he sees in the Church’s interior Bernard of Clairvaux, and the appointment of a Christian Church? As the author refers to what he sees? What explains this attitude?
As the construction of Romanesque and then Gothic cathedrals linked to the development needs of society?
What are the distinguishing features of the Romanesque Cathedral? Describe them with the help of illustrations of the textbook.
Why over the entrance to the temple often was a depiction of the last judgment?
What are the characteristic features of Gothic architecture (at least five). Use the illustrations of the textbook.
Explain why the Roman and Gothic cathedrals were usually very spacious and could accommodate more people than lived in the city.
Using additional literature, prove that the Catholic Church was a “Bible in stone”.
Why do you think the temples often met sculptural subjects unbiblical content?
Make a table comparing Romanesque and Gothic style.