Roman engineering structures
To the top of the construction activities of the Romans are engineering structures. The largest facilities are the network of roads covered the whole territory of the Empire. The Roman Appian way — oldest, preserved and used still transport artery not only in Rome but around the world. It was built in IV—III centuries BC it approached Rome by the army of Spartacus in the late 70-ies of the first century BC and somewhat later in her shoulders were crucified on the crosses of his warriors, captured by the Romans.
The special place in improvement of cities, the growth of which required more and more water took water pipelines and aqueducts . From the hilly neighborhoods in the city reservoirs water was of stone, plastered with hydraulic mortar, the channels that are in low-lying areas and at the intersections of rivers or ravines were supported by arched constructions.
In the II century BC Rome only had nine large aqueducts, which provided water sources 1350, 15 fountains, dozens of public Bagni 11 luxuriously equipped baths. The total length of the conduits that supplied Rome with water, was about 430 km To the second half of the II century BC included the establishment of arched aqueducts — Roman engineering structures for water supply – including the Marcius aqueduct in Rome (144 BC). Indoor water channel passed through the ravines and rivers, over the roads with bridge structures, which had sometimes huge sizes. They represented the system by a high stone piers and arches, with a great depth of the gorge, set in several rows upon each other (the famous aqueduct Pont du Gard at Nimes in France). Its gate — Porta Maggiore — are an example of a combination of rustication which spread from the middle of the first century ad with the shaping of the detail of porticoes. The largest fountains of the city (including the famous Trevi fountain) use water of the aqueduct Aqua Virgo . built in the I century BC under the Emperor Augustus. To our time fragments of the grandiose aqueduct of Claudius (38-52 ad).
A high level of mastrestvo Roman builders not only in technical but also architectural and artistic value is evident in the bridge-the aqueduct of the city of Nemea in France (II century ad) that intersect R. Gard, length of 275 m. It consists of three tiers of arched abutments with a total height of 49 m. the largest Span of the arch is great for the time value of 24.5 m. the Pillars and arches are composed of exactly pritesannye dry stones. Arcade game differs with simplicity of forms and harmony of proportions, the clarity of tectonics, particle size, scale, expressive texture. Monumental exquisite beauty of the composition is achieved exclusively by means of the structural form.
The Romans were masters in the construction of bridges. Some of them, though in ruins, still remain, for example Trajan’s bridge over the Danube at the Iron gate. His projected Greek architect Apollodorus. The bridge, built by Apollodorus over the Danube, was soon demolished by the Romans themselves to prevent unexpected attacks on the territory, where he became king “the Roman world”, supported not so much by the armed force, many urban settlements in which the majority of the male population were retired legionaries.
The bridge length is over 1 km, which is two times longer than the Charles bridge in Prague. He was taller than 20 stone pylons with a height of 44 m. one Hundred years ago, when the level of the Danube fell to the lowest level, exposing 16 powerful foundations for the pylons of the bridge — existing almost 2,000 years, the testimony of great art and technical skill of its creators.