Types of megalithic structures
Megaliths in Greek language means “big stone” and are stone structures relating to the prehistoric period.
These structures were erected without any connecting mortar (cement or lime), and just evolved. A new name – “megaliths” – was first performed in 1849 in his book “Cyclops Christianus,” written by English researcher A. H., and in 1867, the term was adopted at the Paris Congress. Megalithic structures are large blocks of hewn stones, which can consist of one large stone or group of stones.
The buildings of megaliths have received different names and were categorized into types:
• The menhir became known as one large stone, standing in a vertical position.
• The cromlech is a group of vertically standing stones (menhirs) until the circle or semi-circle.
• Dolmen is a structure from the group of rocks where a huge flat block is set horizontally on upright stones.
• Toulou called stone structure with a T-shape.
• Trilithon – this is when the two vertically standing stone, a flat block.
• Seid – stone construction
• Cairn – mound of stones with one/askolinintie.
• Indoor stone gallery.
• Deer stone, a boat grave – a massive hewn stones with drawings.
The division of megaliths on types, not given the ability to set purpose of some of the stones. Some scientists are inclined to believe that these strange structures were used for burials and served as the burial cult in the prehistoric period. This is confirmed by the complex stone in Carnac (France, Bretagne), which is constructed from more than 3000 rocks and was an important ceremonial center of cult of the dead.
But there are megaliths, which were defined astronomical event is the solstice and the equinox, for such purposes intended stone structures found in the Nubian desert, district Nabta Playa. And the famous stone Stonehenge was most likely a prehistoric Observatory. In a large number of megaliths are located in Israel, Spain, Portugal, France, Ireland, Denmark, on the West coast of England and South coast of Sweden.
Conducting modern research method of Dating was refuted already entrenched view that all constructions of megaliths belong to the same megalithic culture.