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The technical achievements of the ancient Egyptians

Mysterious ancient Egyptian civilization is controversial and scientists to this day, because science has a very protivoradikulitnye: on the one hand the construction of the pyramids, advanced medicine, shipbuilding, and lack of basic wheels… How much were developed in different fields of science these people from the distant past. who inhabited the banks of the Nile?

It’s hard to argue with the fact that the most incomprehensible and the most known achievement of the ancient Egyptian civilization was the building of the pyramids.

About the purpose of these magnificent structures argue even modern scientists. Widely discussed and could the people who inhabited the banks of the Nile 5 thousand years ago and used in the construction of simple levers and ramps, to build them? Why the more ancient times of Egyptian civilization were built are larger and more correct proportions of the pyramid? Why they did not develop but, on the contrary, became less geometrically perfect?

Around the pyramids there is so much speculation that it was difficult to decipher what is true and what is fiction. Refer to the most authoritative sources.

The great pyramid of Giza, the Golden ratio and the number Phi (φ)

The relationship between the Golden number Phi (ciclomotore section) and the proportions of the pyramid first described by the English writer John Taylor in the mid-19th century. According to his calculations, the perimeter of the pyramid divided by its height approximately equal to 2φ. In his book, released in 1859, he puts forward the theory that the pyramid symbolized the Earth, as the height of the pyramid corresponds to the radius of the earth, and the perimeter of the pyramid to the equator.

Later in the 19th century, Taylor’s ideas were developed by Charles Piazza Smith, a Professor of astronomy at the University of Edinburgh.

Modern American mathematician Ralph Greenberg, a Professor at Washington University, the site of this institution writes that the perimeter of the pyramid divided by its height gives a fairly accurate number of 2φ, and its slope is equal to 4/φ, and the level error is less than 0.4%.

It seems unlikely that the ancient Egyptians could know the number of the Fi with their level of mathematical knowledge. The explanation for this may be that the ancient Egyptians used a much more simple proportions, which gave almost the same accurate results, as a modern complex calculations.

According to Greenberg, “the magic ratio” was explained by use of simple standard modules for length measurements. However, it is interesting that the proportion of “Golden section” were applied only in the great pyramid and the pyramids of Khafre and menkaure, which were built nearby, and also in the pyramid Sahur. Later such structures the ratio of height to the other.

There is a view that the pyramid was built by representatives of a more ancient and advanced civilization, and the ancient Egyptians tried to copy the magnificent structure. More about the Egyptian pyramids read our article: Secrets of the Egyptian pyramids.

The ancient people that inhabited the banks of the Nile, were able to build durable ships in the year 3000 BC, but did so in a special way. So, the oldest found in the city of Abydos boats were “sewn” from boards with straps. And the gap between the boards cut stems of reeds and grass.

These boats were narrow, but very long: their length reaches up to 23 meters! As found in other ancient ships planks were fastened to each other even with the help of grooves.

Other technological advances

The Nile river flowed irregularly, and the ancient Egyptians to grow their crops — wheat, barley and buckwheat — you need constant irrigation. For these purposes in all areas of Ancient Egypt were built of the total irrigation system.

In addition, the Egyptians had a Potter’s wheel and produced so many ceramics, that it sufficed not only for their own needs but also for export.

But the wheels of the people inhabiting the banks of the Nile, is not used. Chariots first appeared during the reign of the ancient peoples of the Hyksos who seized power in the country.

The ancient Egyptians mined for construction and other needs of the minerals and ore, and even organized a long expedition for the extraction of such fossils. They were engaged in the production of building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, emeralds and semi-precious stones, and salt. From a special mineral they did the plaster. Sulfur used to create cosmetics.

But if the ancient Egyptians something was lacking, they imported it from abroad: trade links they had established with their region. From neighbouring countries used to import gold, tin, copper, lapis lazuli, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and exotic animals like monkeys and baboons. They are mainly exported grain, textiles, papyrus, glass, stone products I. gold again.

Household utensils

Judging by the artifacts that were preserved for posterity the tombs and pyramids, wealthy ancient Egyptians had a well-regulated everyday life: they cooked amazing furniture with legs, stylized under paws of animals, chairs, benches, tables and chests. The interiors were complemented by sculptures, painted pottery, decorative vases, glass ware, which the ancient Egyptians did extremely skillfully. They even know how to adjust the color and opacity of the material.

They were also familiar with the manufacturing techniques of pottery — glaze covered cups, amulets, and other products. Faience of the ancient Egyptians perceived as an artificial semi-precious stone.

Women were combs, jewelry of gold, lapis, ivory and meteor alloys. The ancient Egyptians had several kinds of Board games — Senet and Mahan, also liked to listen to music. Ancient Egyptian musicians played flutes, harps, pipes, and later in the country was imported and percussion. Rich Egyptians had a good time hunting.

The houses of ancient Egyptians were built out of mud bricks, which could well hold the temperature. The walls of their premises could be bleached with plaster. Each house had its own small mill — stone for grinding grain and oven to bake bread. The floor was paved with mats, and on the walls could hang tapestries.

Such was the life of the ancient Egyptians, developed a simple and at the same time, people who gave to posterity a unique majestic pyramids, but not conveyed any knowledge about these inscrutable structures. Many unsolved mysteries still keep the land on the banks of the Nile, which originated one of the oldest known civilizations.

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