The Gothic style . how the term came about after the Gothic as a style in architecture, has lost its dominant importance. He was the first to introduce Italian sculptor, painter, and probably the first scientist – art historian Giorgio Vasari in the mid 16th century. He introduced this term to identify a new direction in the architecture and painting of the Renaissance or Objection. In his “Biographies of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects,” he introduces the notion of Gothic art, which is forever stuck for the whole era.
The word Gothic comes to us from the Italian language, and even from still earlier era of the late Roman Empire. Initially, the Goths called barbarian tribes which eventually put an end to the Roman domination. So Gothic was for the Romans the definition of barbarism, and it was a dirty word. Gothic does not have any relationship to the Goths, and this term appeared after the Goths had disappeared from the stage of history, but the term caught on and, unlike many of the names of artistic styles, the Gothic style has a clear expression in form and in content. Why Gothic is contrasted with the Renaissance? It’s very simple – the Gothic style – a style of majestic cathedrals and buildings that suppress the personality. All thoughts of a person caught under the influence of Gothic paintings, or architecturally to be directed to God and to suppress unwanted beginning. That is why the Gothic cathedrals are striving upward to the sky, as if renouncing all earthly things. Continue reading
To this period belongs the construction of several large engineering structures and among them is a large port at Ostia. At 102, to control Dacia Trajan built a great stone bridge with concrete pillars across the Danube. Built, certainly not he, and his master-builders, among which stood out from Apollodorus of Damascus. He was probably one of the most educated and talented engineers of the Roman Empire, because besides the bridge was built a number of large and complex construction structures, such as the forum of Trajan, the circus and Thermae in Rome, named after the Emperor. He is credited with the construction of one of the most beautiful and the greatest works of world architecture — the concrete of the Pantheon in Rome.
Harder is continuing the construction during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 ad.). Adrian participated in the building not only as an organizer but also as an architect and civil engineer. The greater part of his life he spent in travel through the Empire. Adrian visited all Roman provinces, was a great admirer of Greek culture, admired the skill of the Egyptian artists. Continue reading