Megaliths (from the Greek. — large, Ai0og — rock) — prehistoric structures of large stone blocks, joined without cement or mortar. In the limiting case that one module (the menhir).
The term “megalith” was proposed by the English Explorer A. H. in 1867 and officially adopted at the Congress in Paris. The term is not exhaustive, so the definition of megaliths and megalithic structures are subject to the rather vague group of buildings. In particular, the megaliths called the hewn stones of large dimensions, including those not used for the construction of tombs and monuments.
Megalithic structures found all over the world. In Europe, for example, Stonehenge in England, Carrowmore in Ireland, Almendres in Portugal, the Barnen and Buganski necropolis Department in the Poitou — Charentes region, France, facilities of Cretan-Mycenaean culture, the famous megaliths of Egypt. Continue reading
In the Middle ages was in Europe the city without a Catholic Cathedral. The Latin term civitas, which means city, settlement, in those days, meant the seat of the Bishop. The Episcopal seat was the Cathedral. The construction of Gothic cathedrals is an important milestone in the history of medieval Europe. Not all cathedrals are huge and majestic, but majestic Gothic cathedrals since the XII century represent the citadel of art, science and technology, social life, faith, and power. The Gothic cathedrals of the quintessence of European civilization. Many extant cathedrals were built not only as places of worship, the example of the Saint Denis Basilica.
The Basilica Of Saint-Denis
During the decline of Antiquity, the Roman Empire Christianized, each major and medium city became the residence of the Bishop of the diocese. In the course of the middle Ages are all new to the diocese, continued the evangelization of the Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. In the XIII century Western Europe has nearly a thousand dioceses and many Catholic cathedrals. In the XII century the city flourishes and military construction, the building is grouped around the Gothic cathedrals, some of which reach 1,000 years. Continue reading
In the XII century in France has arisen a new style of art. In France in the XIII century it reached maturity and then spread throughout most of Europe and dominated until the end of the middle Ages. Contemporaries referred to him as “the French style”, and the descendants became known as the Gothic (from the name of grunneger-Mansky tribe is ready).
The last judgment. The relief gate of the Church in Conques. XII in
Monster. A capital of the Cathedral in Canterbury. England
Margrave Ekkehard and his wife Uta. The Cathedral in Naumburg. The XIII century.
Largely Gothic Cathedral was similar to the Romanesque towers on the Western facade; portals, richly decorated with sculpture; the nave leading to the altar; the cross of the transept. It is natural: the Gothic style had not changed the destination of the Cathedral, which remains a place of prayer and worship. Continue reading