Gothic – historic artistic style that dominated Western European art in the XIII-XV centuries by the Goths the Romans called barbarian tribes invaded from the North in the Empire in the III-V centuries the Term originated in the Italian Renaissance as a derisive nickname for the “barbaric” and primitive, Dating back to the past of medieval culture. Initially it was used for literature – to indicate a wrong, distorted Latin. Medieval architecture was then called the common word “tedesca” (Italian: “German”). There is an assumption that the word “Gothic” was first used by Raphael, the famous painter of the Renaissance.
Gothic – the crown of the middle ages, it is bright colors, gilding, stained glass lights, expression, soaring into the sky with a barbed needle spires, Symphony of light, stone and glass… Gothic style characterizes the final stage of medieval art in Western Europe. The birth of Gothic style can be considered the culmination of the Romanesque and its overcoming. For a long time, elements of both styles co-existed, and the transition time of the XII century. was” the Renaissance character.” Continue reading
To capture the water from springs held meter cameras, and shallow groundwater is captured by a horizontal water intakes, wells and wells.
Meter camera (rectangular or round in plan) arranged from durable materials (concrete, burnt brick, etc.) to improve the yield of the spring water, protection from pollution, contamination and poisoning. The water in the chamber flows through the filter in the wall or the bottom. The filter is arranged from one or more layers of sand, gravel, pebbles, grain size of each subsequent layer, starting from the aquifer, 5-8 times that of the thickness of each layer of 10-15 cm the water is taken through the outlet pipe or pump.
Horizontal water intakes are held at low levels aquifer and shallow groundwater up to a depth of 8 m. the Horizontal water intake consists of a water intake portion, discharge portion and the water collecting well. It is located perpendicular to the groundwater flow. The receiving part of the water intake can be constructed in the form of tubular drains or galleries. For tubular water intake (drainage) are applied, ceramic, asbestos cement, reinforced concrete, plastic, cast iron or steel pipe with circular or slotted holes with the sides of the top of the pipe. A water intake pipe sprinkled with gravel or coarse sand. Continue reading
The Gothic style . how the term came about after the Gothic as a style in architecture, has lost its dominant importance. He was the first to introduce Italian sculptor, painter, and probably the first scientist – art historian Giorgio Vasari in the mid 16th century. He introduced this term to identify a new direction in the architecture and painting of the Renaissance or Objection. In his “Biographies of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects,” he introduces the notion of Gothic art, which is forever stuck for the whole era.
The word Gothic comes to us from the Italian language, and even from still earlier era of the late Roman Empire. Initially, the Goths called barbarian tribes which eventually put an end to the Roman domination. So Gothic was for the Romans the definition of barbarism, and it was a dirty word. Gothic does not have any relationship to the Goths, and this term appeared after the Goths had disappeared from the stage of history, but the term caught on and, unlike many of the names of artistic styles, the Gothic style has a clear expression in form and in content. Why Gothic is contrasted with the Renaissance? It’s very simple – the Gothic style – a style of majestic cathedrals and buildings that suppress the personality. All thoughts of a person caught under the influence of Gothic paintings, or architecturally to be directed to God and to suppress unwanted beginning. That is why the Gothic cathedrals are striving upward to the sky, as if renouncing all earthly things. Continue reading