The technology of construction of underground stations
Construction of underground metro stations is one of the technically challenging and labour-intensive industries of modern construction with relatively high material and financial costs.
The volume and scope of work at the station is determined by the type and number of facilities included in the station complex. These facilities are designed for boarding, disembarking and transfer of passengers (station tunnels and distribution facilities, escalator tunnels with suspended cameras engine room, underground and surface halls, connective and transitional passages), the organization of movement of trains (traction-secondary substation, circulating devices and stubs) and for compliance with appropriate sanitary-hygienic conditions (ventilation shafts, tunnels, chambers and kiosks, toilets and drainage pumping chambers).
In addition to constructing tunnels and chambers for different purposes, at stations is a large amount of construction, installation and finishing works. These include the construction of the in-tunnel structures (passenger platforms, trackside devices, catwalks, stairs, office space, cable channels, foundations under escalators, etc.), installation of waterproof umbrellas and architectural design of passenger buildings, installation of escalators equipment, traction-secondary substation, ventilation and drainage installations,sanitary units, lighting. Continue reading
Mysteries of the South Ural “Stonehenge”
Mysterious stone structures scattered across the Chelyabinsk region. They are hidden in forests and swamps, erected on mountain tops… All of them are cult objects. Perhaps ancient burial places.
One of his scientific articles Chelyabinsk paleoarchaeology, an employee of the regional center of additional education of children Vladimir Yurin dedicated to megalithic structures of the southern Urals.
The impetus for the study of stone objects began excavations on the island of Faith (lake Turgoyak), conducted by Stanislav Grigoriev and Elena vasinoj. Scientists have determined that man-made caves are much older than the old believers, who lived there in the nineteenth century.
Dissenters have used the already finished buildings. “Caves” refers to the copper-stone age.
For ten years Vladimir Ivanovich has collected a rich collection of stone objects, built by the ancient Urals. Among the man-made megaliths: dolmens, pyramids, menhirs single, hermitages and dwellings schismatic communities, arranged in the rocks. Continue reading
Gothic – historic artistic style that dominated Western European art in the XIII-XV centuries by the Goths the Romans called barbarian tribes invaded from the North in the Empire in the III-V centuries the Term originated in the Italian Renaissance as a derisive nickname for the “barbaric” and primitive, Dating back to the past of medieval culture. Initially it was used for literature – to indicate a wrong, distorted Latin. Medieval architecture was then called the common word “tedesca” (Italian: “German”). There is an assumption that the word “Gothic” was first used by Raphael, the famous painter of the Renaissance.
Gothic – the crown of the middle ages, it is bright colors, gilding, stained glass lights, expression, soaring into the sky with a barbed needle spires, Symphony of light, stone and glass… Gothic style characterizes the final stage of medieval art in Western Europe. The birth of Gothic style can be considered the culmination of the Romanesque and its overcoming. For a long time, elements of both styles co-existed, and the transition time of the XII century. was” the Renaissance character.” Continue reading